Effects of defoliation caused by the leaf miner Cameraria ohridella on wood production and efficiency in Aesculus hippocastanum growing in north-eastern Italy. In many regions, city gardeners have already started to replace horse-chestnut by other ornamental trees. Gilbert M; Freise JF; Heitland W, 2004. 4 (1592), e1592. Pečiulytė D, Kačergius A, 2012. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Larvae New Phytologist. DYR - I natur og museum. Journal of Applied Entomology, 133(1):58-66. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jen. All these parasitoids are polyphagous parasitoids of leaf miners in Europe, attacking a wide range of hosts in various insect orders, although host-specific biotypes or sibling species cannot be excluded (Girardoz et al., 2007c). Keywords: Gracillariidae, Lithocolletinae, Cameraria ohridella , horse-chestnut leaf miner, Aesculus hippocastanum , tree injection, systemic insecticides, systemic applications, azadirachtin However, it should be considered for trees that are of little ornamental interest, where leaves are not removed and which can act as reservoir for C. ohridella.Pheromone-based Methods In: Forstschutz Aktuell, 21 2. moulting. The influence of systemic inducing agents on horse chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella) severity in white flowering horse chestnut (Aesculus hoppicastanum L.). Cameraria ohridella sp. (Raznolikost parazitoidskih kompleksa domaćih i stranih vrsta lisnih minera u Hrvatskoj.). Poor control of the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), by native European parasitoids: a synchronisation problem. Stankeviciene, A., 2019. The two most suitable hosts were A. hippocastanum and the Japanese horse-chestnut A. turbinata, whereas successful development also occurred on the American species A. glabra, A. sylvatica and A. flava (= A. octandra). Freising. Economic impact of the spread of alien species in Germany. First record of the horse-chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) on Aesculus hippocastanum (Hippocastanaceae) in Ukraine. by Balder H, Strauch K H, Backhaus G F]. 16 (2), 161-174. http://www.bucovina-forestiera.ro/arhiva/2016/16(2)/02_olenici_161-174.pdf DOI:10.4316/bf.2016.015, Olivella E, 2012. Offb. BioControl, 46:671-684. 116. 9 (6), 322-328. http://www.esajournals.org/doi/full/10.1890/100098 DOI:10.1890/100098. (2005a; 2010) showed that parasitism is similar in natural horse-chestnut stands and on urban trees. The effect of defoliation by Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on seed germination and seedling vitality in Aesculus hippocastanum L. Forest Ecology and Management. and the horse-chestnut-leafminer, Cameraria ohridella Desch. Ankara, Turkey: Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University. Firstly, when populations are high, larvae may die from intra-specific competition and leaf senescence that occurs earlier than normal (Pschorn-Walcher, 1994; Freise and Heitland, 2004; Girardoz et al., 2007a). The horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella) is a leaf-mining moth of the family Gracillariidae.The horse-chestnut leaf miner was first observed in North Macedonia in 1984, and was described as a new species in 1986. Augustin S; Guichard S; Heitland W; Freise J; Svatos A; Gilbert M, 2009. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 20, 97-102. doi: 10.1016/j.ufug.2016.08.009. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 27(10), 7122-7124. https://www.prt-parlar.de/download_feb_2018/. (2004) and Gilbert et al. Recent establishment of horse chestnut leaf -miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK. Irish Naturalists' Journal. Abstract: The horse chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella (Lep., Gracillariidae) is a recently introduced invasive pest, which frequently defoliates horse chestnut trees Aesculus hippocastanum already in summer. Thalmann C, 2003. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 29(2):387-404; 41 ref. There are four, occasionally five, instars of feeding larvae and two instars of spinning larvae. Horse chestnut tree injection treatments against Cameraria ohridella and Guignardia aesculi [Aesculus hippocastanum L.; Emilia-Romagna] Among natural enemies, parasitoids have been by far the most widely studied (e.g. Bologna, Italy: Università di Bologna. Ochrana Rostlin, 34(2):67-68; 6 ref. Pupae of C. ohridella may survive low temperatures from -19.5-23°C (Kovacz and Lakatos, 1999). The majority are polyphagous species of the family Eulophidae (Chalcidoidea) but Eupelmidae, Pteromalidae, Braconidae and Ichneumonidea are also occasionally recorded. (Ispitivanje štetnosti moljca minera lista divljeg kestena Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić 1986, (Lep. Bulletin of Insectology, 57(1), 63-64. European Journal of Entomology, 114, 42-52. doi: 10.14411/eje.2017.007. Insect pests on the trees and shrubs from the Macea botanical garden. Presencia en España de Cameraria ohridella Deska & Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) plaga del castaño de Indias. Remarkable records of Microlepidoptera in Sweden during 2002. 35 (5), 777-780. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/, Cebecİ H H, Markovic C, Grabenweger G, Ayberk H, Dobrosavljevic J, Goltas M, Stojanovic A, 2018. DYR - I natur og museum).. Kenis M, Forster B, 1998. 33 (6), 1584-1592. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Biological Invasions. Parasitoids most probably play a minor role in the population dynamics of the moth, including in the probable area of origin in the Balkans (Freise et al., 2002; Grabenweger et al., 2005a; 2010). Nevertheless, parasitism and predation remain low, even at the type location 30 years after its arrival (Grabenweger et al., 2005a, b; Girardoz et al., 2007b; Grabenweger et al., 2010). (Anmärkningsvärda fynd av smǻfjärilar (Microlepidoptera) i Sverige 2002.). Observations on the overwintering and ontogenesis of Cameraria ohridella (Deschka et Dimic 1986, Lep. Cameraria ohridella Dimic (Lepidoptera, Lithocolletidae) new miner on horse chestnut in Serbia and it's natural enemies (Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera, Lithocolletidae) nova vrsta minera na divljem kestenu u Srbiji i njegovi prirodni neprijatelji). Holzschuh C, 1997. Scientific name - Cameraria ohridella (C. ohridella) Picture: Gyorgy Csoka, Hungary FRI, Bugwood.org The caterpillars, or larvae, of the horse chestnut leaf miner moth (HCLM) are an invasive pest of horse chestnut (trees in the Aesculus genus) and some maple and sycamore ( Acer ) species. DOI:10.1111/een.12037, D'Costa L, Simmonds M S J, Straw N, Castagneyrol B, Koricheva J, 2014. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 9(6):322-328. http://www.esajournals.org/doi/full/10.1890/100098. Mass-emergence devices: a biocontrol technique for conservation and augmentation of parasitoids. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, 394:199-202. Sex pheromone of horse-chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella and its use in a pheromone-based monitoring system. The role of geography and host abundance in the distribution of parasitoids of an alien pest. (2005a), Girardoz et al. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 48(4):23-30; 23 ref. Botanica Lithuanica, 18(2):133-146. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, 4:33 (in Russian). Svensson I, 2003. Dautbasic M, Dimic N, 1999. Cat. 21 (2), 29-37. http://www.irbis-nbuv.gov.ua/cgi-bin/irbis_nbuv/cgiirbis_64.exe?C21COM=2&I21DBN=UJRN&P21DBN=UJRN&IMAGE_FILE_DOWNLOAD=1&Image_file_name=PDF/Vkhet_2013_21_2_8.pdf, Mešić A, Čuljak T G, Miličević T, 2010. DOI:10.1134/S2075111717010027. In Europe C. ohridella is the only leaf miner on Aesculus hippocastanum but may be confused with other Gracillariidae, especially Phyllonorycter spp., feeding on Acer spp. Long-distance dispersal and human population density allow the prediction of invasive patterns in the horse chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella. DOI:10.1007/s10340-005-0086-5, Tribel' S A, Gamanova O N, 2009. Male eclosion starts 2-5 days earlier than for females. time trunk injection therapy:BGel to control Cameraria ohridella and Guignardia aesculi on horse chestnut trees using a microinjection technique^ (Best-Pest, Jaworzno, Poland). Survival, body mass and potential fecundity of the invasive moth Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on its original host plant Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus glabra. RHS, 2002. Svensson I, 2003. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.2008.01333.x, Augustin S, Guichard S, Svatoš A, Gilbert M, 2004. The details of the treatment are described elsewhere (Jagiełłoetal.2018). Akimov I A, Zerova M D, Gershenson Z S, Narolsky N B, Kochanez O M, Sviridov S V, 2003. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 35(5):777-780. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/, Cebecİ, H. H., Markovic, C., Grabenweger, G., Ayberk, H., Dobrosavljevic, J., Goltas, M., Stojanovic, A., 2018. The horse-chestnut leaf miner in Europe. It is not always feasible because of the high value of mature urban trees. Tomiczek C, 1997. Furthermore, we examined the possibility to control Guignardia aesculi adding the fungicide thiabendazole. They compared the performances of several invasion models and found that the best model to describe the spread of C. ohridella was a stratified dispersal model taking into account the effect of human population density on the probability of long-distance dispersal events. Parasitoid complex and parasitism rates of the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia. Zashchita i Karantin Rasteniĭ. The horse chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella: chemical control and notes on parasitisation. Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lep: Gracillariidae): a new pest on Aesculus hippocastanum in Greece. Tracking origins of invasive herbivores through herbaria and archival DNA: the case of the horse-chestnut leaf miner. The effect of defoliation by Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on seed germination and seedling vitality in Aesculus hippocastanum L. Forest Ecology and Management, 255(3/4), 830-835. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2007.09.075. Belgrade, Serbia: Faculty of Forestry. London, UK: Harper Collins Publishers. They usually fly from 06:00 h to 12:30 h with a peak at 08:00-09:30 h. Pupae Acta Universitatis - Seria Stiinte Agricole. It also develops on some species of the genus Aesculus, but not on others (Skuhravý, 1998; Hellrigl, 2001; Freise, 2001). III. On the occurrence of the robinia-leafminer, Phyllonorycter robiniella (Clem.) Erste Nachweise der eingeschleppten Kastanien-Miniermotte Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic (Lep., Gracillariidae) in Mittelfranken. Studies in Italy showed that there is little or no impact on tree survival and tree growth in urban areas (Salleo et al., 2003). 48 (6), 193-195. The thoracic legs and the ventral and anal prolegs are completely reduced. 9 (1), e86226. (Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic (Lepidoptera, Lithocolletidae) in Oberösterreich). Eesti taimekaitse. Occurence of Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The body is 4-5 mm long. Parasitism of the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lep., Gracillariidae), in Serbia and Macedonia. 124 (1/2), 13-21. Buczacki S; Harris K, 2000. Proc. 18 (1/2), 195-205. http://www.eds.org.rs/AES/Vol18/AES%2018%20-%20Kollar%20&%20Donoval.pdf, Kopačka M, Zemek R, 2017. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0280.2002.02046.x. Recent molecular studies and observations of ancient herbarium collections now suggest that the moth originates from some remote natural horse-chestnut stands in the Balkan mountains of Macedonia, Albania and Greece and that it has moved to urban areas in these countries in the second half of the 20th century (Valade et al., 2009; Lees et al., 2011). Evolutia moliei miniere a castnului Cameraria ohridella Den. Radeghieri P; Santi F; Maini S, 2004. 58-66. Deschka G; Dimic N, 1986. Acta Biologica Universitatis Daugavpiliensis, 13(1):69-76. Efficacy of light traps in catching horse chestnut leaf miner moth, depending on the height of the tropopause. It is commonly used in some countries, such as Austria or the Czech Republic, but not registered in others (e.g. C. ohridella lives primarily on the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum, but successful development is also occasionally observed on Acer pseudoplatanus and Acer platanoides. The origin of this insect is not known. 11 (2), 23-28. http://www.facultateadeinginerie.ro/studia/studia112/112-don.pdf, Dzięgielewska M, Adamska I, Mikiciuk M, Nowak G, Ptak P, 2017. The potential use of entomopathogenic nematodes against tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Lep: Gelechiidae) [Conference poster]. Biocontrol of Cameraria ohridella by insectivorous birds in different landscape contexts. 134 (7/8), 387-394. http://list.sumari.hr/sadrzaj.asp?lng=EN. Cameraria ohridella probably originates from remote natural stands of the European horse-chestnut, Aesculus hioppocastanum in Greece, Albania and Macedonia. Plant Protection, 18:74-78 (in Macedonian). Download the app to see more photos from the Candide community. Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); damaged trees (yellowing) attacked by C. ohridella, between an undamaged tree of Aesculus x carnea. NOBANIS - Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet - Cameraria ohridella. Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lep. [8th International Symposium of Ecologists of Monetnegro, October 2-5, 2019], 91-96. https://www.vdu.lt/cris/handle/20.500.12259/101430. (Neue Erkenntnisse und Untersuchungen über die Rosskastanien- Miniermotte Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic, 1986 (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae)). Introduction. Genetic diversity of chestnut tree in relation to susceptibility to leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimič). n. Periodicum Biologorum. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde. Anikin, V., 2019. Studia Universitatis Vasile Goldis. Ber., Amst., 60:159-164. (2004) observed workers of the acrobat ant (Crematogaster scutellaris) preying on larvae and pupae of C. ohridella. In: Knízek M, et al., eds. The horse chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella: chemical control and notes on parasitisation. Kehrli P; Bacher S, 2003. The main mortality factors occur in the last generation of the year. Dipartimento di Protezione e Valorizzazione Agroalimentare); Maini, S. (Bologna Univ. Congreso Nacionalde Entomología Aplicada. 48. http://www.z-i-k-r.ru, Augustin S, Guichard S, Heitland W, Freise J, Svatoš A, Gilbert M, 2009. Norwegian Journal of Entomology, 61(1), 8-10. http://www.entomologi.no/journals/nje/nje.htm. Contribution to the knowledge of invasive insect species in Serbia. Spatial patterns of the horse chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) population density was analysed in the cities of Bern and Brussels in order to explore its spatial population dynamics. DOI:10.1080/03071375.2016.1194071, Percival G C, Banks J, Keary I, 2012. Entomologisk Tidskrift, 125:43-53. Szőcs L, George M, Thuróczy C, Csóka G, 2015. Pests, Diseases and Disorders of Garden Plants. Horse chestnut leafminer moth (Cameraria ohridella) arrived in southern Britain around 2002-3 and has steadily spread North. 108 (2), 157-159. Cameraria ohridella is the most important pest on the horse chestnut trees (Aesculus hippocastanum) in Timişoara. However, there must be other factors limiting parasitism in C. ohridella. Biological control, 32:191-199. Two methods of assessing the mortality factors affecting the larvae and pupae of Cameraria ohridella in the leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum in Switzerland and Bulgaria. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticide treatment stimulated sucrase and lactase activity in every pest generation. Eulophid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), from Istanbul, Turkey. Despite a low risk for the survival of the trees in urban areas, the aesthetic damage is so severe that many municipalities are replacing this highly valuable tree by other species. Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); mouthparts of a 4th instar larva. DOI:10.1016/j.ufug.2012.07.001, Percival G C, Holmes S P, 2016. 27 (9), 1251-1255. Zur Kenntnis der Blattminen-Motte Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic (Lep., Lithocolletidae) an Aesculus hippocastanum L. in der Tschechischen Republik. The moth is listed in the 100 worse invasive species in Europe in the DAISIE database (DAISIE, 2009). Details on the biology of the parasitoids of C. ohridella may be found in various publications, e.g. Enzymatic deregulation may play role in indirect Cameraria control by systemic pesticide. In: Forstschutz Aktuell, 21 14. Girardoz S; Kenis M; Quicke DLJ, 2006. (2005). Don I, Don C D, Sasu L R, Vidrean D, Brad M L, 2016. In: 1st International Cameraria Symposium. Entomologica Experimentalis et Applicata, 107:159-162. Olenici N, Duduman M L, 2016. Bulletin of Insectology, 57:63-64. Svatos A; Kalinova B; Hoskovec M; Kindl J; Hovorka O; Hrd8 I, 1999. http://www.europe-aliens.org/speciesFactsheet.do?speciesId=50948#. (2006) found no difference in parasitism rate and the composition of the parasitoid complex between forest and urban sites and, in the Balkans, Grabenweger et al. 75 (6), 152-157. Horse Chestnut Leaf Miner Trap treatment available now. Forstschutz Aktuell, No. (2003) estimated that the additional leaf removal caused by C. ohridella costs about 8 million Euro per year. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.01074.x, Girardoz S, Tomov R, Eschen R, Quicke D L J, Kenis M, 2007. In: Forstschutz Aktuell, 21 5. Entomological Review. In favourable conditions (i.e. Radeghieri P, 2004. Berlin, Germany: Biologische Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft. Tomiczek C; Krehan H, 2001. In Germany, Reinhardt et al. Hellrigl K, 1998. Jahrbuch der Baumpflege. sc. (Lep., Gracillariidae) in Südtirol.). Akimov IA; Zerova MD; Gershenson ZS; Narolsky NB; Kochanez OM; Sviridov SV, 2003. Nat. Anz. Cameraria ohridella Horse-Chestnut Leaf Miner. BioControl. https://gd.eppo.int/reporting/article-429. In the long run, unless a native European natural enemy suddenly improves its capability of controlling the moth, the only sustainable solution to the C. ohridella problem would be the introduction of an exotic natural enemy. Befallsdynamik und Bekämpfungsmöglichkeiten. DOI:10.12775/EQ.2017.025, EPPO, 2010. Cameraria ohridella (horsechestnut leafminer); larva on leaf surface. When properly applied on eggs in the first generation, the trees remain green until the end of the summer. (Verbreitung der Rosskastanienminiermiotte in Österreich). Costs are higher than for other control methods and injections tend to injure the trees, through necrosis and secondly infections.Cultural Control Larvae also developed successfully, but often failed to pupate, in the North American A. circinatum and, occasionally, in the European A. pseudoplatanus, A. tataricum and A. heldreichii, and the Asian A. japonicum. Horse chestnut leaf-miner moth (Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic 1986) mines on sycamore trees. Horse Chestnut Leaf-miner Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić, 1986. (2007a, b) in Austria, Switzerland and Bulgaria. 9 (1), 29-31. http://www.facultateadeinginerie.ro/studia/studia91/91-sasu.pdf, Forest Research, 2020. 49 (1), 14. In: Proceedings, 4th ESENIAS Workshop: International Workshop on IAS in Agricultural and Non-Agricultural Areas in ESENIAS Region, Çanakkale, Turkey, 16-17 December 2013 [ed. Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera Gracillariidae) predation by Crematogaster scutellaris (Hymenoptera Formicidae) in Northern Italy (Preliminary note). Forest Protection Conf., Sofia, 95-98. 61 (1), 8-10. http://www.entomologi.no/journals/nje/nje.htm. (Klíněka jírovcová (Cameraria ohridella) napadá také javor.). animals Cameraria ohridella is not competitive, because the horse chestnut is utilised by very few herbivorous species in Central Europe, since it itself is an alien species. 38-39. http://www.z-i-k-r.ru. C. ohridella was first observed attacking ornamental horse-chestnut trees in Macedonia in the 1970s, and described as a new species in 1986 (Simova-Tosic and Filev, 1985; Deschka and Dimic, 1986). The natural dispersal capacity of adults is poorly known. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. The natural dispersal capacity of adults is poorly known. Abstract The expected high efficacy of Dimilin but also good protection by treatment with Confidor and Calypso were demonstrated. Testing mating disruption of the horse chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in field tents. Horse chestnut leafminer (Cameraria ohridella) in Slovenia. Cars, lorries, trains and other vehicles may carry adults and overwintering pupae in dead leaves. Senckenbergiana biologica, 84:1-20. Second-instar larvae are 1.2 mm long; head capsule is 0.2-0.3 mm wide. Thus, the efficacy of this systemic insecticide in controlling C. ohridella in Europe is very promising and provides a suitable treatment for reducing the incidence of this invasive pest. 57 (1), 63-64. (Italy). Entomologisk Tidskrift. Bulletin of Insectology. Tracking origins of invasive herbivores through herbaria and archival DNA: the case of the horse-chestnut leaf miner. The fast dispersal of the moth in Europe is attributed mainly to human transport. 20 (4), 1029-1035. http://www.pjoes.com, Stankeviciene A, 2019. Horse-chestnut is a highly valued ornamental tree in Central European cities. It was first suggested to be a relict species that has survived the Ice Age with its host in south-eastern Europe (Deschka and Dimic, 1986; Grabenweger and Grill, 2000), whereas, according to Holzschuh (1997) and Kenis et al. Later in the season, mines are usually very numerous and easily detected on the leaves. Reinhardt F; Herle M; Bastiansen F; Streit; B, 2003. They compared the performances of several invasion models and found that the best model to describe the spread of C. ohridella was a stratified dispersal model taking into account the effect of human population density on the probability of long-distance dispersal events. Tóth, P., Lukáš, J., 2005. The bushcricket is probably the most important invertebrate predator of C. ohridella in Austria. 88-98. (Perspektywy ochrony kasztanowców w miastach Ukrainy.). Péré C; Augustin S; Tomov R; Peng LongHui; Turlings TCJ; Kenis M, 2010. 112 (1), 197-203. http://www.eje.cz/artkey/eje-201501-0026_Ultrastructural_and_biochemical_comparison_of_summer_active_and_summer_diapausing_pupae_of_the_horse_chestnut_l.php, France: INRA, Station de Zoologie Forestière, CS 40001 Ardon 45075, Orléans Cedex 2, http://www.orleans.inra.fr/, Switzerland: CABI Europe - Switzerland, 1 Rue des Grillons, 2800 Delémont, www.cabi.org, UK: Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham Surrey GU10 4LH, http://www.forestresearch.gov.uk, Marc Kenis, CABI Europe - Switzerland, 1 Chemin des Grillons, CH-2800 Delémont, Switzerland. The surveys were carried out in Bern in 1998 and 2000 and in Brussels in 2001 to assess population density in relation to local characteristics. (2004) and in France by Augustin et al. This enables ohridella to optimise the utilisation of the available food (Sefrová 2001b; Sefrová & Laštuvka, 2001a). Gredleriana, 1:9-81. Dautbasic M; Dimic N, 1999. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 98(4):379-387. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=ber, Kopačka, M., Zemek, R., 2017. (Kastaniemollet: et smukt nyt skadedyr I Danmark. 35 (1), 103-108. Bucovina Forestiera, 16(2):161-174. http://www.bucovina-forestiera.ro/arhiva/2016/16(2)/02_olenici_161-174.pdf. Larval development lasts 25-35 days with the larva developing through four, occasionally five, feeding instars and two spinning instars (Deschka, 1995; Skuhravý, 1998; Freise and Heitland, 2004). 16:8-11. (Lep. 18 (2), 133-146. Evolution, 52:988-997. (Lep., Lithocolletidae) from Macedonia, Yugoslavia. 34 (1), 26-32. 152 (2), 157-164. Dipartimento di Protezione e Valorizzazione Agroalimentare). In the non-overwintering generations, mortality is usually low, which allows populations to grow fast. Gilbert M; Guichard S; Freise JF; Grégoire JC; Heitland W; Straw N; Tilbury C; Augustin S, 2005. by Uludağ A, Trichkova T, Rat M, Tomov R]. Environmental Entomology. The horse-chestnut miner - a new dangerous pest in Croatia (in Serbien). Variations in parasitism in sympatric populations of three invasive leaf miners. Impact of Cameraria ohridella on Aesculus hippocastanum growth and long-term effects of trunk injection with pesticides. At this time the damage is very visible. Girardoz et al. Augustin S; Guichard S; Svatos A; Gilbert M, 2004. Poor control of the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), by native European parasitoids: a synchronisation problem. Neue Erkenntnisse zur Rosskastanien-Miniermotte. New and interesting Portuguese Lepidoptera records from 2017 (Insecta: Lepidoptera). Physiological examinations on horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella, Deschka et Dimic, 1986) (Lep., Gracillariidae). The efficacy of the fungicide on G. aesculi control was not clearly demonstrated. Note scale. Buszko J, 2006. European Journal of Entomology, 103(2): 365-370. Santi, F. ; Dallavalle, E. ; Maini, S. ; Zechini D'Aulerio, A. Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor). Aesculus californica (California buckeye), Aesculus turbinata (Japanese horse-chestnut), Debris and waste associated with human activities, http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm, Gözel Ç; Gözel U, 2014. Xiang QY; Crawford DJ; Wolfe AD; Tang YC; De Pamphilis CW, 1998. The mine of the fourth instar increases to 4-7 cm². In contrast, it did not develop successfully on the Asian A. chinensis, A. assamica and A. indica and on the American A. pavia, A. californica and A. parviflora. (A vadgesztenyelevél-aknázómoly (Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic 1986) hegyi juharon.) Plant Protection Science. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Arthropod - Plant Interactions. Lep. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Allgemeine und Angewandte-Entomologie, 14:351-354. 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