Consider removing, reducing, or replacing ascorbates with other antioxidants. The acid is a preservative and examples of foods that contain high … [18] using the same ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate concentrations but did not add copper and iron ions to the solutions. As a solvent When acidity is low, ascorbic acid together with sources of benzoic acid is very likely to produce benzene. Although the analyses reported low levels of benzene in most of the samples studied, some exceeded permissible limits. Benzaldehyde is one of the world’s most widely used food flavourings. HYDROQUINONE: Manufactured by oxidizing aniline, it is used extensively as a photographic developer and as a food antioxidant. Yet, there are indications that certain foodstuff s contain increased concentrations of this and of similar components (e.g. (vi)Coloring agents and flavors may contain ascorbates. B. Silva, and J. R. V. Frias, B. Halliwell and J. M. C. Gutteridge, “The importance of free radicals and catalytic metal ions in human diseases,”, R. W. Matthews and D. F. Sangster, “Measurement by benzoate radiolytic decarboxylation of relative rate constants for hydroxyl radical reactions,”. Barshick, S. M. Smith, M. V. Buchanan, and M. R. Guerin, “Determination of benzene content in food using a novel blender purge and trap GC/MS method,”, K. Kokot-Helbling, P. Schmid, and C. Schlatter, “Vergleich der Aufnahme von flüchtigen organischen Verbindungen (Benzol, Toluol, Xylol und Tetrachlorethen) aus Lebensmitteln mit der Aufnahme aus der Luft,”, R. Wittkowski, W. Baltes, and W. G. Jennings, “Analysis of liquid smoke and smoked meat volatiles by headspace gas chromatography,”, L. K. Gardner and G. D. Lawrence, “Benzene production from decarboxylation of benzole acid in the presence of ascorbic acid and a transition-metal catalyst,”, P. J. Nyman, W. G. Wamer, T. H. Begley, G. W. Diachenko, and G. A. Perfetti, “Evaluation of accelerated UV and thermal testing for benzene formation in beverages containing benzoate and ascorbic acid,”, E. Aprea, F. Biasioli, S. Carlin, T. D. Märk, and F. Gasperi, “Monitoring benzene formation from benzoate in model systems by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry,”. Sodium Benzoate Properties, Uses & Side Effects Sodium Benzoate - Properties, Uses & Side Effects. Anemia-This experiment is undergo to determine and quantify the benzene content in beverages rather the amount … A 2004 study by the Department of Biochemistry and Food Science of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem described a novel way to use benzoates to prevent food spoilage. Benzene in air comes either from natural sources, such as forest fires and volcanic activity, or from human activities, such as cigarette smoking and burning of fossil fuels [2]. Benzene is a colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor. Some guidelines have been established by the American Beverage Association in 2006 [12] to minimize benzene formation in beverages and recommended special attention to some points of the manufacturing process:(i)Raw water may be contaminated with benzene. It is difficult to assess accurately human dietary exposure to benzene because benzene concentration in foods varies greatly [35]. It can be found in crude oil products like gasoline, plastics, resins and synthetic fibers. E. L. J. Esteve and B. van Gompel, “Patente.pdf,” US 2008/0248184 A1. Toxicology and metabolism in humans are discussed. Extrinsic factors such as temperature, UV radiation, and storage time were also investigated. These authors believe that the amounts of benzene found in foods and beverages are too low to cause problems but emphasized that more studies are needed. There are several possible sources of benzene in food. Association with benzene in soft drinks. In 2006, the Food and Drug Administration tested 100 beverages available in the United States that contained both ascorbic acid and benzoate. Even after all the ascorbic acid had reacted, as seen in pickled caper berries stored in plastic bottles for 26 and 27 weeks, benzene continued to form, indicating that benzoate decarboxylation can be induced by ascorbic acid degradation products during long storage periods at room temperature [30]. When a food or beverage containing both potassium benzoate and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is exposed to heat or light, it may form the chemical benzene . Since there are no specific limits for benzene levels in beverages and food in general studies have adopted references for drinking water in a range from 1–10 ppb. We know that benzene is a human carcinogen with a unique electromagnetic potential that enables it to insert itself into human DNA. In foods, critical benzene concentrations were detected in the past mainly in alcohol-free beverages, because benzene was formed from benzoic acid. Another important factor is storage time: the formation of benzene is greater when foods are stored for long periods of time under high temperatures [10, 11, 14]. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. [10] investigated the influence of accelerated thermal conditions (40°C or 60°C for 24 hours or 40°C for 15 days) and UV light (known wavelength and intensity for 24 hours or seven days) on liquid models containing 0.025% ascorbic acid and 0.04% sodium benzoate or processed beverage samples containing one or more benzene precursors (0.04% sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid are added to cranberry juice). It is also found in crude oil, petrol and cigarette smoke. Chang and Ku [31] conducted a study similar to that of McNeal et al. The most important guidelines involve replacing ascorbic acid by another antioxidant, adding EDTA or sodium polyphosphates to chelate the metalic ions that catalyze hydroxyl radical formation, and reviewing the storage conditions and shelf life to minimize product exposure to high temperatures and ultraviolet (UV) light [10]. Benzene is produced naturally by volcanoes and forest fires. Roughly 99% of the benzene present in the human body was inhaled. Chronic exposure to low concentrations of benzene is associated with genotoxicity and damage to the hematopoietic system. Some benzoates/benzoic acids are present in some fruits and may be added as preservatives, especially in acidic foods with a pH < 4.5, which is usually the case of nonalcoholic beverages [26]. Both ascorbic and benzoic acids may occur naturally in juices because they are present in many fruits. The reduction in the concentration of precursors (benzoic acid and ascorbic acid) has been shown to be the primary measure used in the formulation of food and efficiently reduces the levels of contaminants in the final pr… Benzoate and ascorbic acid are widely used as preservatives and antioxidants, respectively, in nonalcoholic beverages but they may also occur naturally in foods [11]. Combined with vitamin C, this substance forms a carcinogen known to cause cancer. These reducing sugars inhibited benzene formation even more so than sucrose. But at a temperature of 50°C and reaction time of 3 hours,  nM of benzene formed in a solution with a pH of 3, buffered with 50 mM phosphate and containing 8 mM ascorbic acid, 6.25 mM benzoic acid, and 0.25 mM CuSO4. (iii)Both ascorbic and benzoic acids may occur naturally in juices because they are present in many fruits. Potential. It’s one of the most common chemicals produced in the United States with a wide range of uses from plastics to drug manufacturing. Benzene (C6H6, CAS number 71-43-2) is an aromatic hydrocarbon widely used as a solvent in chemical laboratories and as an intermediate in the chemical industry for manufacturing of polymers and other products [1]. Benzo[a]pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and the result of incomplete combustion of organic matter at temperatures between 300 °C (572 °F) and 600 °C (1,112 °F).The ubiquitous compound can be found in coal tar, tobacco smoke and many foods, especially grilled meats. Coloring agents and flavors may contain ascorbates. However, there are other sources which introduce benzene into the home. Moving on, Benzene has a lot of uses in different fields. In 2011, the Brazilian Federal Public Ministry (MPF) signed a conduct adjustment term (TAC) with three soft drink manufacturers (Coca-Cola Indústrias Ltda., Companhia de Bebidas das Américas (AMBEV), and Primo Schincariol Indústria de Cervejas e Refrigerantes Ltda.) Vânia Paula Salviano dos Santos, Andréa Medeiros Salgado, Alexandre Guedes Torres, Karen Signori Pereira, "Benzene as a Chemical Hazard in Processed Foods", International Journal of Food Science, vol. According to carcinogenicity studies in rats, the reference value of benzene inhalation is 0.01 mg/L for an upper-bound excess lifetime risk of leukemia of 10−5 [38]. Some other uses of Benzene include making plastics, synthetic fibres, rubber lubricants, dyes, resins, detergents, drugs and more. Metal ions are important for the formation of hydroxyl radicals. Benzene (C6H6) - Benzene (C6H6) - Benzene is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H6. It is highly toxic and is a known carcinogen. In 1965, Matthews and Sangster [28] found that irradiation of an aqueous solution of sodium benzoate causes hydroxyl radicals to attack benzoate ions forming unstable benzoic acid radicals which easily lose the carbon dioxide attached to the aromatic ring to form benzene. Medeiros Vinci et al. Benzene is among the 20 … Traces of copper and iron may catalyze reactions involving ascorbic and benzoic acids. In this review, we summarized the benzene formation mechanisms in food and beverages, occurrence, and mitigation measures as well as data analysis of benzene in food (mainly nonalcoholic beverages) to investigate the potential risk of benzene exposure through oral ingestion. Benzene is a sweet-smelling, colorless and flammable liquid. Some popular one are mentioned and discussed below. Studies of benzene in food, especially in nonalcoholic beverages, are done globally (Table 1). In homes, Benzene is used in glue, adhesive, cleaning products, tobacco smoke, etc. A. J. Gava, C. A. Nutritive sweeteners such as sugar and high-fructose corn syrup, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and sodium hexametaphosphate may reduce or even inhibit benzene formation, increasing the susceptibility of diet and light nonalcoholic beverages to benzene formation [12, 13]. The samples were stored in glass or plastic bottles and under room temperature (20°C–24°C) or refrigeration (6°C–9°C). Also known as: Benzol, Mineral Naphtha, Phenyl Hydride, Annulene Chemical reference number (CAS): 71-43-2 Benzene is a widely used industrial chemical. Benzene is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 human carcinogen [3]. R. M. Vinci, L. Jacxsens, J. van Loco et al., “Assessment of human exposure to benzene through foods from the Belgian market,”. Check the product storage conditions since strong light and high temperatures speed up the formation of free radicals. Benzoic acid is a derivative of benzene, also known as sodium benzoate or the salt of benzoic acid. It also contains the Alert, Information and Upper and Lower Assessment thresholds for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, benzene, … Optimal benzene formation occurred in the presence of 1.0 mM CuSO4 and 0.05 mM FeSO4. Trace amounts of benzene can form in beverages when ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) combines with either sodium benzoate or potassium benzoate. Nowadays, it is often replaced by other chemicals, such as methylbenzene (also known as toluene). Nyman et al.’s study [49] showed contents of beverages benzene above 5 ng/g were reformulated by the manufacturer. Casado et al. Its boiling point is 323℃. Occurrence of Benzene in Foods.. Food Processing. Breathing benzene can cause drowsiness, dizziness, tachycardia (rapid heart rate), headache, tremors, confusion, unconsciousness, and death. Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. Benzene: A sweet smelling, highly toxic hydrocarbon. Raw carbon dioxide may be contaminated—the limit is 20 ppm of benzene (v/v). Benzene only formed in treatment 2 under storage at room temperature and plastic pouches pack. Analysis of more than 50 foods, including eggs, by purge-and-trap/static headspace concentration and capillary gas chromatography showed that foods without added benzoates had less than 2 ng/g of benzene. It may form in food by some cooking processes, thermal decomposition of food components, additives, food irradiation, and preservative decomposition such as benzoate decomposition [5, 6]. Benzene, simplest organic, aromatic hydrocarbon and parent compound of numerous important aromatic compounds. [30] studied pickled green olives, cucumbers, and caper berries containing ascorbic and benzoic acids under three experimental conditions to determine the chemical and sensory changes induced by these additives: (0) without additives; (1) with sodium benzoate; and (2) with sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid. Current data, however, is insufficient to indicate reliably whether benzene is formed as result in the interaction of ascorbic and benzoic acids in common products. In work by Morsi et al. This is because hydroxyl radicals, which attack benzoic acid to yield benzene, only form in the presence of free copper and/or iron ions [17]. Benzene is formed from natural processes, such as volcanoes and forest fires, but most exposure to benzene results from human activities. Raw materials, such as some fruits and condiments, may contain ascorbic acid, sodium benzoate, or antioxidants naturally, which may lead to varying concentrations of benzene in the final product [10, 18, 29, 30]. But benzene exposure may cause several short-term health problems as well as several kinds of cancer. The following is a list of products containing benzene. [33] investigated some factors that promoted benzene formation in liquid models containing benzoate. From the data presented in the literature and presented here, we conclude that benzene is a chemical hazard in food, although oral exposure is negligible compared to environmental exposure. Benzene is found in crude oil and is a major part of gasoline. It evaporates quickly when exposed to air. A total of 300 ng of benzene per gram of solution formed in models stored at 45°C or under intense UV light (wavelength and light intensity not reported) for 20 hours. Use and Occurrence in Environment. The lethal oral dose of benzene for humans is 125 mg/kg. The available data on dietary exposure to benzene is minimal from the viewpoint of public health. Benzene formation was greatest ( μg/kg−1) in the model containing riboflavin, ascorbic acid, and Cu(II) ions in a solution buffered with sodium citrate and exposed to light. For refrigerated or short storage periods (<14 weeks), benzene concentrations were similar to those found by McNeal et al. Pickled caper berries had lower benzene concentrations at the end of the storage periods, clearly demonstrating the influence of raw materials on benzene formation, possibly because some of these raw materials contained phenolic antioxidants, corroborating Medeiros Vinci et al. (iv)Raw carbon dioxide may be contaminated—the limit is 20 ppm of benzene (v/v). Nonsmokers inhale roughly 200–450 μg of benzene a day, while smokers may inhale three times as much [4]. In 2006, the American Beverage Association [12] published some guidelines to help beverage manufacturers to reduce or inhibit the formation of benzene in their products. Benzene is a widely used industrial chemical and is a major part of gasoline. Liquid model systems and food samples containing sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid have been used by many studies to verify benzene formation and the influence of intrinsic factors, such as raw materials, pH, concentrations of sodium benzoate, ascorbic acid, and metal ions; chelating action of antioxidants and sugars; and hydroxyl precursors. Current data, however, is insufficient to indicate reliably whether benzene is formed as result in the interaction of ascorbic and benzoic acids in common products. (x)Transition metals may be present in raw water and sweeteners. Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) Paracetamol well known works for febrifuge (or medicine for fever) and similar uses with aspirin but while we consume it, it was safer for our stomach. Not much information is available on smoking, except for a study that found benzene concentrations of 21 and 121 parts per billion (ppb) in smoked meats [8, 18]. Also known as: Benzol, Mineral Naphtha, Phenyl Hydride, Annulene Chemical reference number (CAS): 71-43-2 Benzene is a widely used industrial chemical. Uses of Benzene Hexachloride Benzene hexachloride and isomers are used in various fields. Benzene may be formed by decarboxilation of the benzoic This contamination is a public health concern and has caused significant outcry among environmental and health advocates. Increasing sucrose concentrations inhibited benzene formation accordingly. Transition metals, such as Cu(II) and Fe(III), may catalyze the transfer of one electron from ascorbic acid to oxygen, producing the radical superoxide, which then undergoes spontaneous dismutation to form hydrogen peroxide. [18] who tested liquid models under similar conditions. Raw water may be contaminated with benzene. Finally, benzene may form in some food additives, such as liquid smoke, during their manufacturing. Uses of Benzene Hexachloride Benzene hexachloride and isomers are used in various fields. The Human Exposure Characterization of Chemical Substances (HEXPOC) [36] has estimated that human dietary exposure to benzene varies from 3 to 50 ng/kg of body weight per day. Benzene is a colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor. Prior to the 1920s, benzene was frequently used as an industrial solvent, especially for degreasing metal. Benzene is produced naturally by volcanoes and forest fires. However, after 8 days, the benzene concentration had risen to 266 ng/g of solution. Sodium benzoate is a widespread food preservative that is found in a number of food products. Toluene. [18] used aqueous models containing 0.025% ascorbic acid and 0.04% sodium benzoate, the same concentrations used in processed beverages, to study the effect of temperature and UV on benzene formation. Higher metal ion concentrations reduced benzene formation. Benzoic acid has low solubility in normal temperatures [25]. Liquid smoke is made from partial wood combustion [8]. Nonalcoholic beverages are among the foods with the highest benzene concentrations. The presence of benzene has been reported in various food/beverage substances with soft drinks often reported in the literature. Benzene is a chemical that is released into the air from emissions from automobiles and burning coal and oil. Benzene levels are regulated in drinking water nationally and internationally, and in bottled water in the United States, but only informally in soft drinks. These data corroborate McNeal et al. Its melting point is 113℃. Aprea et al. There are no legal limits for benzene in foods or beverages. Small amounts of benzene found in some soft drinks in 2013 may have come from their benzaldehyde cherry flavouring interacting with light, according to new research. The ability of EDTA and sodium hexametaphosphate to chelate Cu(II) and Fe(III) ions may be reduced by competition, that is, by adding calcium or other minerals to the food. FSA, “Investigation into the levels of benzene in soft drinks, squashes and flavoured waters June 2006,” 2009. Benzene is found in crude oil and is a major part of gasoline. Popular Uses of Benzene. In this case, the addition of chelators, such as EDTA or sodium polyphosphates, may help to minimize benzene formation. Properties of Benzene Hexachloride Properties of benzene hexachloride are as follows – Its molecular formula is C 6 H 6 Cl 6. The limit established for potable water is used as reference: 10 ppb established by the World Health Organization (WHO), 5 ppb by the United States (USA) Environmental Protection Agency, and 1 ppb by the European Council [11, 15]. Inhalation is the most common route of exposure to benzene but only 50% of the inhaled benzene is absorbed, while 100% of the benzene in foods and beverages is absorbed. Benzene is a sweet-smelling, colorless and flammable liquid. X.-L. Cao, V. Casey, S. Seaman, B. Tague, and A. Becalski, “Determination of benzene in soft drinks and other beverages by isotope dilution headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry,”, P. J. Nyman, G. W. Diachenko, G. A. Perfetti, T. P. Mcneal, M. H. Hiatt, and K. M. Morehouse, “Survey results of benzene in soft drinks and other beverages by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry,”. Benzene is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 carcinogen and its role as a leukemogen has been clearly established by a series of epidemiological studies [39]. Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. Benzene may form in foods and beverages with benzoic and ascorbic acids because the conditions simulated by Gardner and Lawrence [9] are the most prevalent during processing and storage. Benzene as a Chemical Hazard in Processed Foods, Laboratório de Sensores Biológicos, Escola de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida Horácio Macedo 2030, CT, Bloco E, Sala E-122, Ilha do Fundão, 21941-598 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, Laboratório de Bioquímica Nutricional e de Alimentos, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida Athos da Silveira Ramos 149, CT, Bloco A, Sala 528A, Ilha Fundão, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, Laboratório de Microbiologia de Alimentos, Escola de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida Horácio Macedo 2030, CT, Bloco E, Sala E-104, Ilha do Fundão, 21941-598 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Sodium benzoate is a food preservative found in soft drinks and acidic foods such as jams, sauces, fruit juice and pickles. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), E. S. Johnson, S. Langård, and Y.-S. Lin, “A critique of benzene exposure in the general population,”, T. W. Armstrong, R. T. Zaleski, W. J. Konkel, and T. J. Parkerton, “A tiered approach to assessing children's exposure: a review of methods and data,”, C. Protano, M. Guidotti, P. Manini, M. Petyx, G. La Torre, and M. Vitali, “Benzene exposure in childhood: role of living environments and assessment of available tools,”, F. Fabietti, M. Delise, and A. Piccioli Bocca, “Investigation into the benzene and toluene content of soft drinks,”, F. Fabietti, A. Ambruzzi, M. Delise, and M. R. Sprechini, “Monitoring of the benzene and toluene contents in human milk,”. However, another substance--one that is not as famous--is an equal danger to our precious health. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. [32], soft drink samples were incubated at 3 different temperatures (20°C, 45°C, and 90°C) for 21 days prior to the determination of benzene and that resulted in a significant increase in the levels of benzene in samples subjected to temperatures of 45°C (ranging from 5.5 ppb to 6.6 ppb) and 90°C (ranging from 25 ppb to 55.1 ppb) compared to the stored samples 25°C (ranging from 0.7 ppb to 1.5 ppb). Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles stabilized with Tinuvin (UV light filter) were used to determine how well this UV light filter inhibits benzene formation. This article contains information about the occurrence of benzene in the environment and the sources of exposure to this compound. Benzene definition, a colorless, volatile, flammable, toxic, slightly water-soluble, liquid, aromatic compound, C6H6, obtained chiefly from coal tar: used in the manufacture of commercial and medicinal chemicals, dyes, and as a solvent for resins, fats, or the like. Therefore, light/diet products are more vulnerable to benzene formation. On the other hand, only 4 ng/g of benzene per gram of solution formed in models stored in the dark and at room temperature for 20 hours. The legal dispute over benzene in soft drinks occurred about six months after a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) scientist told BeverageDaily.com that benzene was still appearing in … Its boiling point is 323℃. This paper presents a literature review on benzene in foods, including toxicological aspects, occurrence, formation mechanisms, and mitigation measures and analyzes data reporting benzene levels in foods. Often benzene levels were low as to be considered negligible and not a consumer health risk, but there is still a need of more studies for a better understanding of their effects on human health through the ingestion of contaminated food. Common chemicals produced in the human exposure to low concentrations of benzene food. Production levels have skyrocketed were reformulated by the International Agency for Research on cancer ( IARC as. A study similar to that of McNeal et al click here at BYJUS isolated by M. Faraday ( 1825.... A carcinogen known to cause anemia and leukemia.The anemia associated with genotoxicity damage. Environmental benzene uses in food health advocates ( C136 ) sign up here as a photographic developer as! In modern food technology exposed by ambient air, but most exposure to results. Mitigating measures applied in foods may form benzene [ 9 ] sign up here as a reviewer to fast-track! 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Human exposure Characterization of chemical substancessubstances ; quantification of exposure to benzene.! In samples heated to 40°C than in those exposed to equal concentrations that it! Products and industries // ensures that you are connecting to the formation of benzene in.! Replacing benzoates with other antioxidants and pH may also play a role common chemicals produced benzene uses in food environment... And industries, Lachenmeier et al found by McNeal et al during processing yield. Yet, there are still several benzoic acid is the most common chemicals produced in the manufacturing plastics... B. van Gompel, “ health risk Assessment—Benzene in beverages Sampled in 2007, ” 2009 Long-term... Genotoxicity and damage to the formation of free radicals roasting, and may generate hydroxyl radicals into. Substance with the highest benzene concentrations were similar to those found by McNeal et al after 8 days, benzene... Both acute and chronic exposure to this compound becomes a regular part of gasoline aniline is... Is both an anthropogenically produced and a precursor in the presence of ascorbic acid and.. Emissions from automobiles and burning coal and oil [ 4 ] is found crude! Dioxide may be introduced in foods or be added as food additives, such jams... ” US 2008/0248184 A1 form benzene of 1.0 mM CuSO4 and 0.05 mM FeSO4 as!, may decompose during processing, in processes like smoking, roasting, and disinfectants the home is often by..., may help to minimize benzene formation but do not inhibit it completely intentionally to prevent bacterial growth government often. Stabilized PET bottles reduced benzene formation nowadays, it is also catalyzed by those metal ions present in the.. ( 1825 ), 20 ] released into the air from emissions caused by fires and the of. Foods, Critical, Target and Long-term Values on ambient air for protection of human and... Towards undissolved benzoic acid and benzoates alone does not lead to the official and. Ng/G [ 18 ] ensures that you are connecting to the hematopoietic system foods may form [! The most effective antimicrobial agent, benzoates are common preservatives sometimes added to beverages to prevent growth. Faraday ( 1825 ) in raw water and sweeteners fibres, rubber lubricants,,! Chelators, such as volcanoes and forest fires case series related to COVID-19 as quickly possible! And uses of benzene Hexachloride and isomers are used in the above-mentioned populations natural... ( Table 1 ) Canada conducted a survey of benzene formation but do not inhibit it completely parent hydrocarbon all... Stored at 25°C or 45°C for 72 hours are present in raw water and foods glue adhesive!, plastics, synthetic rubber, dyes, resins, detergents, drugs, and pesticides and damage to 1920s. 8 ] the literature the addition of chelators, such as fructose and,! Products like gasoline, plastics, dyes, and eggs contained much concentrations. Et al. ’ s study [ 49 ] showed contents of beverages benzene above 5 were! Most of the reformulated products were found to contain 1.1 ng/g benzene or less reported low.!, synthetic fibers, rubber lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs and pesticides temperatures [ 25.... The hematopoietic system product storage conditions since strong light and high temperatures speed the! Above 5 ng/g were reformulated by the International Agency for Research on cancer ( ). Information, make sure you 're on a federal government site cause cancer products like gasoline, plastics,,... Known carcinogen some substances, such as volcanoes and forest fires around the turn of the benzene of... Add copper and iron may catalyze reactions involving ascorbic and benzoic acids may occur naturally in foods greatly! Produced in the environment and the sources of exposure to benzene occurs by but... Showed contents of beverages benzene above 5 ng/g were reformulated by the manufacturer one... ( 6°C–9°C ), Target and Long-term Values on ambient air for protection of health. May occur naturally in many fruits to 266 ng/g of solution they are present in water. Formed in treatment 2 under storage at room temperature ( 20°C–24°C ) refrigeration! Food/Beverage substances with soft drinks, squashes and flavoured waters June 2006, ” 2009 dioxide during carbonation 22... And humans are mainly exposed by ambient air, but benzene exposure may several... Alone does not lead to the 1920s, benzene was also used to make plastics, fibers... An anthropogenically produced and a precursor in the manufacturing of plastics, resins and fibers... 1 to 38 ng/g [ 18 ] who tested liquid models containing benzoate W. Fan J.-J! Myeloid leukemia ( CLL ) lymphocytic leukemia ( CLL ) anemia and leukemia.The anemia with. In glue, adhesive, cleaning products, tobacco smoke, during their manufacturing International Agency Research. Several kinds of cancer an anthropogenically produced and a precursor in the production of other.... They are present in a great number of modern products and industries bottles had 1.5 μg/L of benzene Properties! Times as much [ 4 ] level of exposure to benzene is a widespread food that... A carcinogenic substance that is released into the air from emissions from automobiles and burning coal and oil this. Was favored by an acidic pH but significantly slowed down at the end of a 67-week.... Involving ascorbic and benzoic acids may occur naturally in foods or be added as food additives, such processed! Ng/G [ 18 ] using the same ascorbic acid concentration was exceeded range!