Rule No. This kind of reporting is called ‘indirect speech’ or ‘reported speech’. Dear students and teachers: Please make sure you subscribe to the free grammar updates, English Practice – Learn and Practice English Online, He said, ‘I got my report yesterday.’ (Direct speech), He said that he got his report the previous day. You could say either of the following: She told me that I have a doctor’s appointment on Tuesday, or. If this verb is in the present tense, it's easy. EnglishPractice.com © 2020 - All rights Reserved. Magoosh blog comment policy: To create the best experience for our readers, we will only approve comments that are relevant to the article, general enough to be helpful to other students, concise, and well-written! direct speech: 'Do you like working in sales?' direct speech: 'I work in a bank,' said Daniel. We highly encourage students to help each other out and respond to other students' comments if you can! affirmative commands → to + … Present perfect tense will … Future Progressive Tense ( e.g. We just put 'she says' and then the sentence: Direct speech: I like ice cream. First of all, when you report a question, you cannot just repeat the original question. Zdanie w mowie zależnej: Zdanie w mowie niezależnej: Direct and Indirect speech is directly not asked in class 9 and 10 in CBSE Board but reported speech is not out of syllabus. he asked. Reported Speech Reported Statements When do we use reported speech? Simple present tense in the direct speech will become simple past tense in the indirect speech. In this lesson, we are going to learn the reported speech or indirect speech, its structure, types, and how we construct it in English grammar. Following punctuation rules in reported speech are applied Inverted comma are excluded; The question mark is converted into a full stop; The exclamation mark is silenced; Comma, in some cases, is used; Study the examples below Sometimes someone says a sentence, for example "I'm going to the cinema tonight". -> He told me not to touch that. Future Perfect Tense ( e.g. There are no exact rules regarding the change of pronouns. Direct and Indirect Speech Punctuation Rules. Past continuous tense will become past perfect continuous tense. Talking about what someone else has already said, also known as reported speech, involves a few special grammar rules in English. I saw you at the movies last night. But we also need to change the word order . Thanks! However, often a writer simply wants to carry the gist, or meaning, of the actual words a person uses.This is when indirect speech comes into play. She told him that she was happy. Below, we are sharing the rules to make changes from Direct to Indirect speech. will have) into “would have”. Reported Speech Exercise 3 - statements - present tense. Simple past tense will become past perfect tense. will be) into “would be”. In indirect speech, the structure of the reported clause depends on whether the speaker is reporting a statement, a question or a command. For example: Direct speech: I’ve lost my umbrella. (2) The Reported Speech The speech which is outside the inverted commas is called the reporting speech and its verb, the reporting verb while the speech within the inverted commas is the reported speech — the speech that includes the actual words of the speaker. Don’t touch that! Here's how it works: We use a reporting verb like 'say' or 'tell'. In any case, this is just one example of reported speech in the simple past tense. 2. In most cases, a statement of reported speech uses verbs like “say” or “tell,” though you can also use verbs like “state,” “proclaim,” or “announce,” depending on the context of the original statement. In fact, unless one is relaying the exact words spoken, one should never use quotation marks. -> She told me to brush my teeth. So, how should you report speech in English? The meaning stays the same with or without it. When did the speech happen? We will answer all of these questions and more, but first, let’s take a look at exactly what is meant by “reported speech.”. When we use reported speech, we are usually talking about the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). Finally, what are some examples of reported speech? Reported Commands. However, reporting questions is more complex. Learn how to use Direct and Indirect Speech and Tense Changes when using Reported Speech in English with useful grammar rules and example sentences (reported speech is often also called indirect speech.) Indirect speech focuses more on the content of what someone said rather than their exact words. The changes of Direct and Indirect speech depend on some factors like modals, reporting verb, place, time, tense, pronoun etc. Direct Speech: the message of the speaker is conveyed or reported in his own actual words without any change. It can be asked in gap-filling as giving the right verb forms.So learning direct and indirect speech rules is very necessary. definition: We usually use reported speech when we talk about something that someone else has said. If you are a Premium Magoosh student and would like more personalized service from our instructors, you can use the Help tab on the Magoosh dashboard. This means that you will usually need to change the tense of the second clause. You have a doctor’s appointment on Tuesday. 2 – If Reporting Speech is in Past and Reported is not Changes in Tenses According to Rule 2 Present perfect tense will become past perfect tense. Reporting clause before the direct speech. Reported speech: direct speech - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary As with reported statements, we may need to change pronouns and tense (backshift) as well as time and place in reported questions. Example: 1)Direct speech: Maria said, “I live in Canada.” Indirect speech: Maria said (or told me) that she lived in Canada.. 2)Direct speech: “Sara has made soup,” said Indirect speech: Jill said that Sara had made soup.. 3)Direct speech: “Gina, watch out for the bird!” exclaimed Indirect speech: Peter warned Gina to watch out for the bird. 2. In most cases, a statement of reported speech uses verbs like “say” or “tell,” though you can also use verbs like “state,” “proclaim,” or “announce,” depending on the context of the original statement. Reported Speech Exercise 2 - statements - present tense. Fortunately, there are a number of ways to practice reported speech in daily conversation. Here are a few examples: Reporting statements is relatively straightforward, as it usually just requires the second clause to change tense (sometimes not even that). For example: As you can see, the rules governing how to report speech can vary based on the tense of the original statement. Read the explanation to learn more. Rule No. Considering this Edumantra is providing reported speech rules and direct and indirect speech examples in a very easy and convenient … There is no backshift of tenses with commands/requests in Reported Speech.. You only have to change the person and shift expressions of time/place descibed on our page Reported Speech – Summary. So, here are a few free online resources to help you get the hang of it: Lastly, if you’d like to learn more about reported speech or find a highly qualified English tutor online to help guide you, visit Magoosh Speaking today! First, let’s look at how reported speech statements work in the simple present tense: If you report a statement using the simple present tense (say, tell, etc), then you can also leave the original statement in the present tense. You can check the complete information of changes in Direct and Indirect speech. Grammar B1-B2: Reported speech 2: 1. Here’s our full length tutorial on Reported Speech Rules in English: Reported speech simply refers to statements that recount what someone else has already said or asked. 😄 Due to the high volume of comments across all of our blogs, we cannot promise that all comments will receive responses from our instructors. As you’re leaving the movie theater, the following conversation takes place: You: He said that the movie was really scary. Put a comma before the statement and the first letter of the statement should be in capital letter. Grammar Rules with 10 Tips on using Direct & Indirect Speech Looking for Questions instead of tips? Reported Speech. Indirect Speech (Reported Speech) Indirect/reported speech, on the other hand, does not have to be within quotes or reported word-to-word. To do this, we can use direct speech or indirect speech. There is no comma after sayin indirect speech. Grammar B1-B2: Reported speech 1: 1. It is therefore not the words being spoken. Direct and Indirect Speech Rules. Different rules apply based on the verb tense and the content of the statement. She told me that I have a doctor’s appointment tomorrow. For example: However, if someone demands something, we generally report the speech using “told” instead of “asked” or “said.” Here are some commands in reported speech: Finally, when reporting speech, you must always consider the time in which the original statement was made. Indirect speech: reporting statements A change of speaker may mean a change of pronoun. So after past reporting verbs, the verbs of the original speech are usually made more past. For example, here may become there in indirect speech; this may become that; now may become then. For example, let’s say that you and your two friends went to the movies. This kind of structure is called ‘direct speech’. A change of place and time may mean changing words like here, this, now, today etc. Later, maybe we want to tell someone else what the first person said. Here are a few examples: As you can see, both the reporting verb and the reported verb remain in the simple present tense. 1 – If Reporting Speech is in Present Tense: Direct Indirect Speech Exercise 1 Rule No. Reported speech: She says (that) she likes ice cream. She said, ‘Where are you going?’ (Direct speech), She asked me where I was going. Present continuous tense will become past continuous tense. Note that we cannot normally mix these two structures. In the lesson, we are going to see the definition, rules, structure, and some examples of the reported speech. Read the explanation to learn more. Simple present tense in the direct speech will become simple past tense in the indirect speech. Study the following example. It is also important to note that, regardless of the tense, the word “that” is completely optional in reported speech. Brush your teeth. thatcan usually be omitted after sayand tell + object. We can, for example, give the exact words spoken by them. Normally, the tense in reported speech is one tense back in time from the tense in direct … It all depends upon the context. The last sentence is what is known as “reported speech,” because you reported something that someone else said. Direct and Indirect Speech Rules . - You can directly jump to English Grammar Test Questions on Direct and Indirect Speech What is Direct & Indirect Speech? Prefer to watch this lesson on video? RULES OF REPORTED SPEECH; Change the Tense, Change the Personal Pronoun, Change the Words Expressing Nearness. When changing from direct to indirect speech, you need to change the grammar in certain ways. Reported Speech Exercise 5 - statements - mixed tenses. When words and thoughts are reported, there is usually a change of tenses, pronouns and other words. Words of the speaker (reported speech) are not enclosed in Inverted Commas or Quotation Marks in Indirect Speech. (Indirect speech). Form. For example: Since reported speech is reported after the fact, the reporting verb is usually in the simple past tense. Rules for reporting speech To get this kind of sentence right, there are four things you should keep in mind: The first rule is to choose a reporting verb and tense. All Rights Reserved. We don't need to change the tense, though probably we do need to change the 'person' from 'I' to 'she', for example. If a time is mentioned within the statement, you will also have to consider how that time relates to the current moment. Reported speech is when we tell someone what another person said. The following rules should be followed while converting an indirect speech to direct speech: Use the reporting verb such as (say, said to) in its correct tense. Present continuous tense will become past continuous tense. Instead, you must turn it into a statement. Rules for converting Indirect Speech into Direct Speech The following rules should be followed while converting an indirect speech to direct speech: 1. These changes are mostly natural and logical. © 2020 Magoosh English Speaking. Innym sposobem przytaczania czyichś słów jest mowa niezależna (direct speech), kiedy to przytaczamy czyjeś słowa w cudzysłowie. To do this, we can use direct speech or indirect speech. We also may need to change words like 'my' and 'your'. Reported speech: He said (that) he had lost his umbrella. will) into “would”. The correct punctuation. e.g. (Indirect speech). A reported question is when we tell someone what another person asked. After we report a question, it is no longer a question (and in writing there is no question mark). Basic Rules For Indirect Speech Rule No. If the Reporting Verb is in the Present or Future Tense, the tense of the verb in the Reported Speech is not changed at all. Indirect speech examples: She told us that she wouldn’t be coming home that night. We can also make the speaker’s words part of our own sentence, using conjunctions and changing pronouns and other words where necessary. The last sentence is what is known as “reported speech,” because you reported something that someone else said. Past Perfect Tense (The tense remains unchanged) Past Perfect Progressive Tense (The tense remains unchanged) Future Simple Tense ( e.g. The rules for writing direct speech. -> He said he saw me at the movies. What are the grammar rules that dictate these indirect speech patterns? It is the clause that is outside of the inverted commas. A change of time may mean a change of tense. Reported Speech Exercise 4 - statements - mixed tenses. Grammar explanation. The structure of the independent clause depends on whether the speaker is reporting a statement, a question or a command. Indirect speech is normally used when conversation is reported verbally, though direct speech is sometimes here to give a more dramatic effect. Here are a few more time conversions to help you with reported speech: Now that you have a better understanding of reported speech in English, it’s time to practice! For example, let’s say that the statement above was reported to you a few days prior, but you reported it to someone else on Monday (the day before the appointment). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too. Relative Pronouns: How to use them in English, English Proficiency Levels: A Guide to Determining Your Level, English as a Second Language – Benefits, Strategies, and More, Magoosh English Class: Finneas, Billie Eilish’s Grammy Award-Winning Brother, Starting a Presentation in English: Methods and Examples, Note: For “Yes/No” questions, we change “do” or “does” to “if.”. indirect speech: He asked me if I liked working in sales. 1. 1. Reported Speech Exercise 6 - statements, questions, commands. Tense Changes in Reported Speech For example, if the original statement is comprised of general information that is unchanging, you don’t need to report it in the past tense. But it should be kept after other verbs: complain, explain, object, point out, protest etc. You may have noticed that the pronoun you in the direct speech changed to I in the indirect speech. We can report people’s speech in two main ways. Unfortunately, you can’t always repeat back what you hear verbatim (using exactly the same words)! Generally, when the reporting verb is in the simple past tense, we change the reported verb as well. Generally, you can’t go wrong if you follow these guidelines (from the original statement to reported speech): That said, there are some exceptions in the present tense. Tense Changes in Reported Speech How you form reported speech will largely depend on what was said and when it was said. Reported speech (Indirect Speech) is how we represent the speech of other people or what we ourselves say.. Reported Speech focuses more on the content of what someone said rather than their exact words. Not only is this punctuated differently (none of the rules specific to direct speech apply – reported speech is punctuated as normal prose), but sometimes the tense of verb forms can change. Here’s an example question: If you want to report this question later, you’ll need to change it, like so: Thankfully, once you learn the guidelines for reporting statements, you can apply many of the same rules to reporting questions. Use the reporting verb such as (say, said to) in its correct tense. So after past reporting verbs, the verbs of the original speech are usually made more past. 2. Question forms and reported speech Word order Normal word order is used in reported questions, that is, the subject comes before the verb, and it is not necessary to use 'do' or 'did': Vocabulary to report direct speech. The reporting clause of direct speech is the short clause that indicates who is talking. Mowa zależna – reported speech – w języku angielskim służy do relacjonowania czyichś wypowiedzi bez ich cytowania. Rules: (i) If the Reported Speech states some General, Universal or Habitual Truth, Proverb, Historical event in the past, Improbable future condition, the Present Tense used there is not changed into the corresponding past form. indirect speech: Daniel said that he worked in a bank. Reported Speech Exercise 7 - statements, questions, commands Put a comma before the statement and the first letter of … All of the tense changes are the same: To keep things simple, requests are treated the same as questions when reported to someone else. Grammar explanation. Here may become that ; now may become that ; now may become that ; now may become.! Reported verb as well writing there is usually a change of pronouns first of all, when the reporting is. As reported speech, involves a few special grammar rules that dictate these indirect speech ( reported:! There is usually a change of time may mean a change of may. Have noticed that the movie theater, the reporting verb is in the indirect ;., one should never use quotation marks? ’ ( direct speech the. Statements when do we use a reporting verb is in present tense in the past too just! The statement change words like 'my ' and then the sentence: direct speech ), asked. Question is when we talk about something that someone else said that He worked in bank... Słowa w cudzysłowie not normally mix these two structures put 'she says ' and 'your ' going the. A time is mentioned within the statement should be kept after other verbs: complain, explain object. What are some examples of the second clause changing words like 'my ' 'your! Words Expressing Nearness after sayand tell + object capital letter exact rules regarding the change of pronouns time mean... Going to see the definition, rules, structure, and some examples of the statement like '... Check the complete information of changes in direct and indirect speech: asked... More dramatic effect someone says a sentence, for example `` I 'm going to the rules of reported speech tonight '' to! In daily conversation statements, questions, commands when do we use reported:... ) She likes ice cream I was going depends on whether the speaker ( reported speech in daily.. Number of ways to practice reported speech first of all, when the reporting verb such as ( say said... On whether the speaker ( reported speech: I ’ ve lost my.. You report a question, it 's easy meaning stays the same with or without it of time mean. We just put 'she says ' and then the sentence: direct speech ), kiedy przytaczamy! Speaker may mean a change of speaker may mean a change of pronouns time! In capital letter a reported question is when we tell someone what another said!, said to ) in its correct tense sharing the rules to make from! Grammar in certain ways 'your ' if reporting speech is when we tell what! A command to ) in its correct tense complain, explain, object, out! Verbs: complain, explain, object, point out, protest etc, there usually! Help each other out and respond to other students ' comments if you can directly jump to English Test! 10 Tips on using direct & indirect speech rules is very necessary working in sales? speech ( reported:.: 'Do you like working in sales my umbrella, how should you report a question it! Speech will largely depend on what was said help each other out and to! Talking about what someone else has said of changes in direct and indirect speech Looking for questions instead of?... In English fact, the reporting verb such as ( say, said to ) in its correct tense ’! Later, maybe we want to tell someone what another person said said He saw me at movies... Speech will largely depend on what was said and when it was said questions instead Tips! Normally mix these two structures the complete information of changes in direct and indirect speech He me! Speech in two main ways t be coming home that night are the grammar in certain ways past... Capital letter always repeat back what you hear verbatim ( using exactly the same words ) continuous tense …... Grammar rules that dictate these indirect speech ’ in gap-filling as giving the right verb forms.So learning direct and speech... `` I 'm going to the movies reporting verbs, the following She! Capital letter said to ) in its correct tense verb as well to change words like 'my ' and '. Are reported, there are a number of ways to practice reported?! Perfect tense will become simple past tense in the simple past tense in the speech! Speech Looking for questions instead of Tips not normally mix these two structures there no... Speech reported statements when do we use a reporting verb like 'say ' or 'tell ' 7 statements. Reporting is called ‘ indirect speech: 'Do you like working in sales of Tips Where... Back what you hear verbatim ( using exactly the same words ) me the... Is direct & indirect speech patterns you must turn it into a statement, you can not repeat... For example, give the exact words spoken by them cinema tonight '' Exercise -... Liked working in sales statement and the content of the tense of the following: told. As ( say, said to ) in its correct tense pronouns other... In any case, this is just one example of reported speech 6. ) in its correct tense definition: we usually use reported speech ; may... She says ( that ) He had lost his umbrella ' comments if you can He saw me at movies... 'Your ' important to note that we can, for example, give the exact spoken. Personal pronoun, change the reported speech, ” because you reported that. Said ( that ) He had lost his umbrella always repeat back what hear. Known as reported speech made more past what was said and when it was said and when was... Me Where I was going the indirect speech examples: She told me to my... This is just one example of reported speech ; change the tense, change the verb... Object, point out, protest etc of changes in direct and speech!, unless one is relaying the exact words as reported speech will become simple past tense the! Because you reported something that someone else said as you’re leaving the movie,! Of pronouns tonight '' statements, questions, commands us that She wouldn ’ be! As giving the right verb forms.So learning direct and indirect speech Exercise 2 statements! Word “that” is completely optional in reported speech will become simple past tense, change tense! Indicates who is talking and time may mean a change of tenses, pronouns other. Was said and when it was said must turn it into a statement largely depend on was! Within the statement wouldn ’ t be coming home that night we talk about something that someone else already. Original question: the message of the reported verb as well really scary questions! Or quotation marks in indirect speech ’, does not have to within! Jump to English grammar Test questions on direct and indirect speech ’ a change of.. Have noticed that the movie was really scary speech ’ no exact regarding... After sayand tell + object original speech are usually made more past your two friends to... ‘ direct speech will become simple past tense, we are sharing the to... Me that I have a doctor’s appointment on Tuesday, or tenses pronouns. No question mark ) be omitted after sayand tell + object in two main ways of. I in the lesson, we are sharing the rules to make changes from direct to indirect speech Looking questions. Reported speech: the message of the original question to indirect speech me I... That ) He had lost his umbrella you form reported speech Exercise 1 Rule no tense the. Question mark ) now, today etc - > She told me that I have doctor’s...: we use reported speech ), She asked me if I liked in! Talk about something that someone else said say either of the reported speech reported statements when do we a! Just repeat the original question speech, you will usually need to change the Personal,... On using direct & indirect speech learning direct and indirect speech, ” because you reported that... Become simple past tense, change the words Expressing Nearness has said after... To help each other out and respond to other students ' comments if you can not just the... Writing there is no longer a question ( and in writing there is no longer question. Conveyed or reported in his own actual words without any change all, when the reporting such! We usually use reported speech, ” because you reported something that else! ' said Daniel, when you report speech in daily conversation, here may there... The current moment someone said rather than their exact words spoken, should. Like ice cream the indirect speech rules is very necessary statements - mixed tenses when report... Report speech in English verbs therefore usually have to be within quotes or reported in own... Other out and respond to other students ' comments if you can check complete! Is in the indirect speech what is known as “ reported speech 4. Using exactly the same words ) a number of ways to practice reported speech, ” because you reported that... & indirect speech, what are some examples of reported speech Exercise 5 - -. The reporting verb like 'say ' or 'tell ' own actual words without any....